Nobel prize in chemistry

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Nobel Laureates in Chemistry
Year Name Nation[1] Prize awarded for:
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff the Netherlands discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer Germany work on sugar and purine syntheses
1903 Svante August Arrhenius Sweden electrolytic theory of dissociation
1904 Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds
1906 Henri Moissan France investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation
1908 Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom
New Zealand
investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction
1910 Otto Wallach Germany services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds
1911 Marie Curie, née Sklodowska Poland/France discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element
1912 Victor Grignard France discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent
Paul Sabatier France method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry
1914 Theodore William Richards United States accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter Germany researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll
1916 Not awarded
1918 Fritz Haber Germany synthesis of ammonia from its elements
1919 Not awarded
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst Germany work in thermochemistry
1921 Frederick Soddy United Kingdom contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes
1922 Francis William Aston United Kingdom discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule
1923 Fritz Pregl Austria invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances
1924 Not awarded
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany / Hungary demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg Sweden work on disperse systems
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Germany
1930 Hans Fischer Germany researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin
1931 Carl Bosch Germany contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods
Friedrich Bergius Germany
1932 Irving Langmuir United States discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
1933 Not awarded
1934 Harold Clayton Urey United States discovery of heavy hydrogen
1935 Frédéric Joliot France synthesis of new radioactive elements
Irène Joliot-Curie France

1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye the Netherlands work on molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C
Paul Karrer Switzerland investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany work on carotenoids and vitamins
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany work on sex hormones
Leopold Ruzicka Croatia work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
1940 Not awarded
1943 George de Hevesy Hungary work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes
1944 Otto Hahn Germany discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method
1946 James Batcheller Sumner United States discovery that enzymes can be crystallized
John Howard Northrop United States preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form
Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins
1949 William Francis Giauque United States contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany discovery and development of the diene synthesis
Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan United States discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements
Glenn Theodore Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom invention of partition chromatography
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry
1954 Linus Carl Pauling United States research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud United States work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov USSR
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd United Kingdom work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes
1958 Frederick Sanger United Kingdom work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis
1960 Willard Frank Libby United States method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science
1961 Melvin Calvin United States research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom studies of the structures of globular proteins
John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method
1967 Manfred Eigen Federal Republic of Germany studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1969 Derek H. R. Barton United Kingdom contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry
Odd Hassel Norway
1970 Luis F. Leloir Argentina discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen United States work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation
Stanford Moore United States contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Federal Republic of Germany pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul J. Flory United States fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Vladimir Prelog Yugoslavia/Switzerland research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions
1976 William N. Lipscomb United States studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis
Georg Wittig Federal Republic of Germany
1980 Paul Berg United States fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA
Walter Gilbert United States contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
Frederick Sanger United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes
1983 Henry Taube United States work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield United States development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
Jerome Karle United States
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach United States contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes
Yuan T. Lee United States
John C. Polanyi Canada / Hungary
1987 Donald J. Cram United States development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity
Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Federal Republic of Germany determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre
Robert Huber Federal Republic of Germany
Hartmut Michel Federal Republic of Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
United States
discovery of catalytic properties of RNA
Thomas R. Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus United States contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems
1993 Kary B. Mullis United States contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method
Michael Smith Canada contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies
1994 George A. Olah United States / Hungary contribution to carbocation chemistry
1995 Paul J. Crutzen the Netherlands work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone
Mario J. Molina (México)United States
F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. United States discovery of fullerenes
Sir Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase
1998 Walter Kohn United States development of the density-functional theory
John A. Pople United Kingdom development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt
United States
studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
2000 Alan J. Heeger United States discovery and development of conductive polymers
Alan G MacDiarmid United States
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
Ryo-ji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions
2002 John B. Fenn United States development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution
2003 Peter Agre United States discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels
Roderick MacKinnon United States discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels
2004 Aaron Ciechanover Israel discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Avram Hershko Israel
Irwin Rose United States
2005 Yves Chauvin France development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States
2006 Roger D. Kornberg United States studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
2007 Gerhard Ertl Germany studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces]]
2008 Osamu Shimomura Japan discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States
2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan India studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
Thomas A. Steitz United States
Ada E. Yonath Israel
2010 Richard F. Heck United States palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis
Ei-ichi Negishi United States
Akira Suzuki Japan
2011 Daniel Shechtman Israel discovery of quasicrystals
2012 Robert J. Lefkowitz United States studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
Brian K. Kobilka United States
2013 Martin Karplus United States/Austria the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.
Michael Levitt United States/United Kingdom/Israel
Arieh Warshel United States/Israel

[edit] Notes

  1. As given by the Nobel Foundation at the time of the award, which is not necessarily the same as the location of research or birthplace.

[edit] Source

Nobel prize organization
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